Exercise Research


VO2 Max testing. Source: https://advan.physiology.org – via the Institute of Environmental Stress of the University of California-Santa Barbara, circa 1974.

The following list includes research papers and abstracts that I have recently read and hopefully now you will too. Check back periodically – I will continue to add some of the more interesting papers that I read. Click on the name of the scientific journal to read any of the following papers. Check back periodically to read the latest paper (listed on top). Enjoy!

  • Point M, Guilhem G, Hug F, Nordez A, Frey A, Lacourpaille L. Cryotherapy induces an increase in muscle stiffness. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2017; 00:1–7.
  • Wearable Technology for Athletes: Information Overload and Pseudoscience? Halson SL, International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 11(6): 705 -706, 2016.
  • Training Principles for Fascial Connective Tissue, Schleip R., Muller DG., J. Bodywork & Movement Therapies, 2012.
  • On the Performance of Usain Bolt in the 100 Meter Sprint, Gómez, J.J., Marquina, V., Gómez, R.W. European Journal of Physics, 34: 1227-1233, 2013.
  • Challenging the Fructose Hypothesis: New Perspectives on Fructose Consumption and Metabolism, White JS, Advances in Nutrition, 4: 246-256, 2013.
  • The Relationship of Walking Intensity to Total and Cause-Specific Mortality. Williams PT, Thompson PD. PLoS ONE 8(11): 1-10, 2013.
  • Associations of Light, Moderate, and Vigorous Intensity Activity with Longevity: Harvard Alumni Health Study, I-Min Lee, R. Paffenbarger, Am J Epidemiology, 151(3), 2000.
  • Endurance Exercise in Masters Athletes. Journal Physiology. 586(1): 55-63, 2008.
  • Physiological Adaptations to Low-volume, High-intensity Interval Training in Health and Disease. J Physiology 590(5): 1077-1084, 2012.
  • Changes in Energy Expenditure Resulting from Altered Body Weight. N Engl J Med; 332: 621-628, 1995.
  • Role of Low Energy Expenditure and Sitting in Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease. Diabetes 56(11): 2655-2667, 2007.
  • Role of Low Energy Expenditure and Sitting in Obesity. Diabetes. 56: 2655-2667, 2007.
  • Relationship Between Training Status and Maximal Fat Oxidation Rate. J. Sports Science and Medicine. 9: 31-35, 2010.
  • Energy Balance and Body Composition in Sports and Exercise. J. of Sports Sciences. 22: 1-14, 2004.
  • Effect of a High Protein Breakfast on Ghrelin Repsonse. Am J. Clin. Nutrition. 83(2): 211-220, 2006.
  • Effect of Dynamic Versus Static Stretching in the Warm-up on Hamstring Flexibility. Sport Journal. 2011.
  • International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Nutrient timing, J. Int. Society of Sports Nutrition, 5-17, 2008.
  • Association of Change in Step Count Over Five Years with Insulin Sensitivity, BMJ, 341:1-8, 2010.
  • Strength Training in Female Distance Runners: Impact on Running Economy, J. Strength & Cond. Research, 11(4): 224-229, 1997.
  • The A to Z Weight Loss Study: A Randomized Study. JAMA, 297(9): 969-977, 2007.
  • Metabolic Factors Limiting Performance in Runners. Computational Biology, 2010.
  • Harvard Alumni Health Study. Stroke. 29:2049-2054, 1998.
  • Lactate Metabolism: a paradigm for the third millennium. J. Physiology 558(1): 5-30, 2004.
  • Biochemical Adaptations in Muscle. J. Biol. Chemistry 424(9): 2278-2282, 1967.
  • Physical Activity and Weight Gain Prevention. JAMA 303: 1173-1179, 2010.
  • Assessment of Anaerobic Power in Female Division I Collegiate Basketball Players. J. Exercise Physiology 13(1): 1-9, 2010.
  • Regulation of Body Weight in Humans. Physiological Reviews. 79: 451-480, 1999.
  • Metabolic profile of high intensity intermittent exercises. Med. Sci. Sports and Exerc. 29(3): 390-395, 1997.
  • Effects of moderate-intensity endurance and high-intensity intermittent training on anaerobic capacity and VO2max. 28(10):1327-30, 1996.
  • Dynamic exercise performance in Masters athletes: insight into the effects of primary human aging on physiological functional capacity. J Applied Physiol 95: 2152-2162, 2003.
  • The possible mechanisms of contracting and paying the oxygen debt and the role of lactic acid in muscular contraction. Amer. J. Physiology. 106: 689, 1933. (this has become a classic paper).

Source: https://marquette.edu Athletic Performance Research Lab

The following content is what I refer to as FitStats (fitness statistics). Each reference has been previously posted on my site.

  • A meta-analysis published in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise reviewed 49 studies of men ages 50 to 83 who did progressive resistance training and found that subjects averaged a 2.4-pound increase in lean body mass.
  • A study in the journal Nutrients suggests a daily intake of 1 to 1.3 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight for older adults who do regular strength training. This is much higher than 0.8 grams/kg/body weight than you may have previously read or been told. This would mean, for example, that a 175-pound man would need about 79 grams to 103 grams a day. If possible, divide your protein equally among your daily meals to maximize muscle protein synthesis.
  • Approximately three decades of age-related strength loss and two decades of age-related muscle mass loss can be recovered or reversed within the first couple of months of starting a strength training program. Ivey, FM et al., The Effects of Age, Gender and Myostatin Genotype on the Hypertrophic Response to Heavy Resistance Strength Training. J. Gerontol: Med Sci 55A: M641-M848, 2000.
  • Since the 1970’s, American women have increased their daily calorie intake by 269 calories (to 1,814 a day), and men by 208 calories (to 2,603 a day). According to the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition there is actually some good news from all this. These numbers actually represent a drop in calories/day from 95 to 70 when compared to data from a decade ago.  Source: University of California, Berkeley Wellness Letter, volume 29:13, 2013.
  • Are you looking for one more reason why you should be consistently strength training at least a few times each week? About 24% of a newborn’s body weight is muscle. A typical active adults total body weight is comprised of 35-42% muscle mass. By the time a women has reached age 70 their muscle mass is back to 24%. Malina RM (1969). Quantification of fat, muscle and bone in man. Clin. Orthopedic Rel. Res. 65:9
  • Research by Krogh-Madsen and colleagues showed the dramatic changes that can take place after just two weeks of decreasing your activity. The subjects were young, lean, healthy men who decreased their daily steps from 10,000 steps/day to 1,300 steps/day. They experienced an increase in body weight, 7% decline in VO2 max, a 2.8% loss of lean muscle in their legs, and a 17% drop in insulin sensitivity after just two weeks of decreasing their activity by 8,700 steps/day.  American adults take between 2,000 and 12,000 steps/day while sedentary adults average 1300 steps/day. Krogh-Madsen R, Thyfault JP, Broholm C, Mortensen OH, Olsen RH, Mounier R, Plomgaard P, van Hall G, Booth FW, and Pedersen, BK (2010). A 2-wk reduction of ambulatory activity attenuates peripheral insulin sensitivity. J. Applied Physiology, 108(5):1034-1040. 
  • “Fat (in our diet) is not the problem,” says Dr. Walter Willett, chairman of the department of nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health. “If Americans could eliminate sugary beverages, potatoes, white bread, pasta, white rice and sugary snacks, we would wipe out almost all the problems we have with weight and diabetes and other metabolic diseases.” Research from Harvard University published in the New England Journal of Medicine followed subjects over a twenty year period and determined that the food most often associated with weight gain was you guessed it, white potatoes. Dariush Mozaffarian, Tao Hao, Eric B. Rimm, Walter C. Willett, and Frank B. Hu, (2011). Changes in Diet and Lifestyle and Long-Term Weight Gain in Women and Men . New England J Med; 364:2392-2404. Marni Jameson, (2010). A Reversal on Carbs. Los Angeles Times, December.
  • Resting metabolic rate makes up 60-70% of your total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). Thermic effect of food contributes another 10% and thermic effect of exercise is the most variable. Sedentary individuals may add 10-30% to that TDEE number while very active individuals can easily be above 50-75%. Looking for an added TDEE bonus? The more active you are throughout the day will drive up your NEAT (non-exercise activity thermogenesis) while more intense exercise will increase your excess post oxygen consumption (EPOC) for 2 to 48 hours. Wu BH, Lin J, (2006). Effects of exercise intensity on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and substrate use after resistance exercise. J Exerc Sci Fit, 4(2). Abboud GJ, Greer BK, Campbell SC, Panton LB, (2012). Effects of Load-Volume on EPOC after Acute Bouts of Resistance Training in Resistance Trained Males. October.
  • In a recent comprehensive research review, Donnelly and colleagues note that the majority of peer-reviewed resistance training studies (lasting 8–52 weeks) show increases of 2.2–4.5 lb of muscle mass. These researchers suggest that an increase of 4.5 lb of muscle mass would probably increase resting metabolic rate by about 50 kcal per day. Although this small change is not nearly as much as some advertisers may suggest, it does help close the gap between energy intake and energy expenditure. Donnelly, J.E., et al. (2003). Is resistance training effective for weight management? Evidence-Based Preventive Medicine, 1(1): 21–29.
  • Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is the energy expenditure of all physical activities other than exercise. NEAT can vary by up to 2000 kcal per day between people of similar size in part because of the substantial variation in the amount of activity that they perform. Obesity is associated with low NEAT; overweight individuals stand and ambulate for 2.5 hours per day less than lean sedentary individuals. Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (2006). Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 26: 729-736.
  • A small study showed participants who increased their steps to average more than 9,500 a day for 32 weeks lost 5 pounds, 1.9% body fat and 1.9 centimeters from their hips. They also increased their HDL cholesterol by 3 mg/dL and lowered their BMI by nearly 2 points (participants increased their steps on average by 4,000 steps a day). Schneider PL, Bassett DR, Thompson DL, Pronl NP, and Bielak KM (2006). Effects of a 10,000 Steps per Day Goal in Overweight Adults. Am J Health Promotion 21(2): 85-89.
  • Stanford researchers (2007) looked at 26 different studies and summarized the results in The Journal of the American Medical Association. Their synopsis showed that pedometer users walk more than 2,000 additional steps each day than nonusers, and their overall physical activity levels increase by 27%.

Scientific Research Journals (full-text Archives)